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Chromosomal inversions are a major mechanism shaping the level and distribution of genomic diversity within and between species.Inversion polymorphism has been described in several Drosophila species (Krimbas and Powell, 1992) and has been observed to vary seasonally, and with altitude and latitude (Dobzhansky, 1943; Krimbas, 1993; Kennington et al., 2006).

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Males invariably possess the XY chromosome pair (Morgan used a more cumbersome notation) while flies with the XX chromosome are female.Correspondence: Dr C Pegueroles, Departament de Genètica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, Barcelona 08028, Spain.E-mail: [email protected] 5 June 2012; Revised 11 October 2012; Accepted 17 December 2012Advance online publication 16 January 2013Gene flow (defined as allele exchange between populations) and gene flux (defined as allele exchange during meiosis in heterokaryotypic females) are important factors decreasing genetic differentiation between populations and inversions.group (41 species assigned to six subgroups) are mostly inhabitants of temperate forest throughout the Holarctic region, with some can adapted into high-elevation temperate-like habitats in the Afrotropical, Neotropical and Oriental regions.Some of these species (e.g., group as a whole: different studies employed different set of taxa, with species from the Afrotropical region (5 species) and Oriental region (8 described 2 undescribed species) have rarely been investigated [ Gene loci sampled in the present study.melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in studies of genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and life history evolution.

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